Team members: Neil Flathers, Bob MacGillivray,
Tom Bojko, John Hennedy, Jim Beaudry,
Karen Wynne, Bob Melville, Wallace Nutting,
Jeff Keezer, Carolyn Pease
Biddeford Pool, Biddeford, consists of two transgressive
barriers connecting two bedrock island to the mainland. Hills Beach
to the north and Fletcher Neck to the south, comprise the pair of supratidal
tombolos that protect the embayment, or “The Pool”, from the open ocean.
The beaches along Biddeford Pool are generally rocky at the head of the
system, while sandy beaches are found along the length of the two barriers.
A sandy-mud tidal flat, incised by a dendritic tidal creek system, creates
the backbarrier environment (FitzGerald et al., 1989).
Biddeford Pool was formed by the slow landward migration
of barrier beaches (Hulmes, 1981). The Saco River and sand from glacial
bluffs were sources of sediment to the region. Biddeford Pool has
a fairly stable geomorphic configuration, indicating that it will continue
to migrate slowly in the future. Despite its stability, processes
such as washover and the potential of inlet switching may cause changes
to the washover lobes of the shoreline (Kelley et al., 1989). Most of the
sand from the Saco River is deposited along Hills Beach, and very little
makes it to Fletcher Neck (Kelley et al., 1989).
Much of Biddeford Pool is highly developed. Houses
line the frontal dune ridge along the western part of Fletcher Neck, commonly
known as Fortune Rocks Beach. A seawall extends along most of the beach
length to protect homes and property. The Biddeford beach, at the
eastern end of Fletcher Neck, is the only publicly accessible beach in
the area (Kelley et al., 1989). However, a wooden bulkhead cuts off
the natural supply of sand to the dunes in this region. There is
a large amount of development along Hills Beach, too, although it is protected
from storm waves by the southern Saco jetty.
Although salt marshes and ponds back most double tombolos,
the largest laggon in the state, Biddeford Pool, is formed by one of these
|Profile 1||Profile 3|
Dickson, S.M., in press, Beach and Dune Geology, Mile Stretch Beach, South Point, Biddeford, Maine, Maine Geological Survey Open-File Report (Photo 7-3)
Dickson, S.M., in press, Beach and Dune Geology, Fortunes Rocks Beach, Biddeford Pool, Biddeford, Maine, Maine Geological Survey Open-File Report (Photo 9-2)
Dickson, S.M., in press, Beach and Dune Geology, Fortunes Rocks Beach, Fortunes Rocks, Biddeford, Maine, Maine Geological Survey Open-File Report (Photo 10-4)
FitzGerald, D.M., Lincoln, J.M., Fink, L.K, and Caldwell, D.W., 1989, Morphodynamics of tidal inlet systems in Maine, in: Studies in Maine Geology, v.5, Quaternary Geology, R.D. Tucker and R.G. Marvinney (eds.), Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, ME, p. 67-96.
Hulmes, L.J., 1981, Holocene Stratigraphy and Geomorphology of the Hills Beach/Fletcher Neck Tombolo System, Biddeford Maine, Northeastern Geology, v. 3, no 3-4, pp. 197-201.
Kelley, J.T., Kelley, A.R.,
and Pilkey, O.H., sr., 1989, Living with the Coast of Maine, Duke University
Press, Durham, NC, 174 p.